Monochamus galloprovincialis

Biocontrol of the vector of the Pine Wilt Nematode

Common name: Vector of the Pine Wilt Nematode
Scientific name: Monochamus galloprovincialis
Order: Coleoptera
Affects: Pine forests
Main season: End of Spring, Summer and Autumn

monochamus galloprovicialis

General information

Cerambycidae or longhorn beetles are from the Coleoptera family that have strictly phytophagous habits. Amongst them, the most important species feed on wood plant tissues.

The Monochamus genus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) is part of the Monochamini tribe, which is made up of more than 600 species grouped into almost 100 genera. It is a family with phytophagous habits. There are many species of forest interest that feed on wood plant tissues and the majority of them are saproxylic insects. These species carry out very important roles in the forest ecosystem and are essential to the matter and energy cycles in forests.


The Monochamus genus is made up of 150 species all over the world, although they are mostly in Equatorial Africa where many species attack the coffee and cocoa plants. In the mild forests of the Holarctic region, the Monochamus species live on top of conifers.

On the Iberian Peninsula, the Monochamus genus is made up exclusively of two species: Monochamus sutor (Linneo 1758), and M. galloprovincialis (Olivier 1795). M. sutor is a species of the Palearctic region, reaching as far as Japan. It is rare to the Iberian Peninsula because it is only found in the Pyrenees. The second species, M. galloprovincialis, is much more common and is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, central Europe, the Caucasus region, Siberia, Mongolia and China. On the Iberian Peninsula, they live on almost all of the Pinus, including the Abies and Picea. species. . Some evidence seems to indicate that there is very little preference for Pinus pinea. on the Iberian Peninsula.

Morphology and biology

The adults attack the bark and phloem of growing branches and the larvae have phloem-xylophagous habits. None of the species of the Monochamus genus reproduce on healthy trees, but they are attracted to stressed, dying or recently deceased trees. They are also attracted to freshly cut wood, favoured by previous attacks from Ipini bark beetles (Orthotomicus e Ips). In fact, the kairomonal attractant used to attract the species, consists of kairomones that have been produced by the host and kairomones produced by the bark beetles that attack the tree, mainly ipsenol.


When Monochamus colonises these trees which already have a previously established population of bark beetles, it then acts as what is known as an expert predator or intraguild predator.

This means that the Monochamus larvae will feed on the phloem and other bark beetle larvae found inside the trees, regardless of them already living there. This extra protein intake is very likely to provide the Monochamus larvae with some sort of advantage over those that do not consume it (Mas, 2016).

The female lays her eggs in fissures with a characteristic cone shape or bite mark, excavated in the bark of suitable trees.

Monochamus Male


Monochamus Female


The larvae are apodous, more or less cylindrical, and have a thickening on the cephalic segments that partly hide the head. In the beginning, they feed on phloem and cambium. Later on, they enter inside the xylem and build a U-shaped gallery that ends in a pupal chamber, from which they emerge through a circular bore hole. Once the young adult has emerged, it goes through a period of sexual maturity in which it feeds on the soft bark of small branches, brachyblasts, phloem and pines shoots.

Monochamus damage

M. galloprovicialis is therefore a non-aggressive insect. It is a very minor species that brings important benefits to the functioning of the forest ecosystem. It would not be of much interest if it were not for the fact that M. galloprovincialis had been identified as the vector of the Pine Wilt Disease, caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal in 1999 (Sousa et al. 2001). Nowadays, it is the main vector of the disease on the Iberian Peninsula. Interaction between both organisms is a relationship of mutual interest, obligatory for the nematode and facultative for the beetle. This is because the nematode needs the beetle for its transport and dispersal. The beetle benefits from the death of the forest caused by the nematode, because it means an increase in host material where to place its eggs.

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus eis a phytosanitary quarantine species introduced into Europe in 1999 when it was detected on the Setubal peninsula, in Portugal. Since then, it has spread out so much, that practically the entire territory of mainland Portugal has been declared a demarcated area.

In Spain, four outbreaks have been detected since 2008, all close to the Portuguese border. Three of them in the province of Cáceres and the remaining one in Pontevedra. Three of the outbreaks are considered to be under control and the other completely eradicated.

The only vectors that have been shown to be effective in transmitting B. xylophilus, are species of the Monochamus, specifically seven species: M. carolinensis, M. mutator, M. scutellatus and M. titillator in North America; M. alternatus y M. saltuarius in Northeast Asia and M. galloprovincialis in Europe.

Therefore, one of the fundamental tools for controlling this disease is the control of its vector, as it is the only way to transmit the nematode from one tree to another.

Detection and monitoring

Research carried out within the framework of the European project REPHRAME has shown that the most effective trap for capturing Monochamus galloprovincialis is the CROSSTRAP® (Álvarez et al, 2014), including for capturing this insect live. Capturing live insects is the best way to assess whether they carry nematodes, because when the insect dies, the nematodes leave the vector.

For the detection and monitoring of Monochamus galloprovincialis in nematode-free areas, 1 CROSSTRAP® should be placed every 20 hectares. These traps should be separated at least 1000 m from each other. On surfaces of less than 20 hectares, at least one trap should be placed per forest stand or forest mass.

Monochamus phenology

Phenology of Monochamus galloprovincialis

To protect small circular areas or wood stockpiles, use 3 to 10 traps surrounding the area. The traps should be placed in areas with good visibility, such as forest edges, forest trails or fire-breaks. Particularly windy places should be avoided, as the wind makes it difficult for the insects to fly and could damage the traps.

A detection trap system should cover the environmental variability of the monitored forest. In general, traps should be installed and operational between April and December.

Necessary material

A CROSSTRAP® trap and the ECONEX MONOCHAMUS ATTRACTANT 60 DAYS kairomone diffusers, that will hang on the trap using the holes on one of the PVC sheets.

The diffusers are in a blister pack, with a duration of 60 days. They are individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with labelled specifications. Once taken out of the packaging, the diffusers need no activation or opening , just placed correctly on the trap.

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                                                MONOCHAMUS ATRAYENTE 60 DÍAS

Kairomone diffusers for the attraction of both sexes of the species Monochamus galloprovincialis, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions.

Code: UIPHOVA195
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 134/2014

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The CROSSTRAP® is a state-of-the-art forest trap. This trap has been created through an R&D project (University of Murcia – ECONEX) aimed at developing traps and attractants for forest insects.

The CROSSTRAP® consists of a 33cm diameter polypropylene lid with a central carabiner attached to a steel spring. Two reinforced PVC sheets are held in place by four steel springs in the lid’s upper section. They are used as elements of dynamic suspension, serving as shock absorbers against the force of the wind exerted on the trap. This way, damage to the traps in the forest is avoided. The PVC sheets are also fixed at the bottom to a 30 cm diameter polypropylene funnel. At the bottom of the funnel is a collection cup, which is attached to it with screws.

The PVC sheets, funnel and collection cup are treated with a slippery product that increases the number of captures considerably and prevents the insects from escaping.

The CROSSTRAP® can last up to 7 years, due to its structure and highly resistant components. The unfolded trap measures 33 cm diameter x 146 cm high. Once folded, it is 33 cm diameter x 40 cm high, making it easier to transport.


Trap to stop coleopterans during flight.

Code: UIPFETA227
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 153/2013

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The latest generation in cross-vane traps to help capture forest pests.

Code: UIPFETA132
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 153/2013

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The trap can be used with two types of collection cup: CROSSTRAP® WET COLLECTION CUP for wet captures and CROSSTRAP® DRY COLLECTION CUP for dry (live) captures.

The COLECTOR HÚMEDO CROSSTRAP® has an approximate capacity of 2 litres and with a drain in the upper section to prevent it from filling with rainwater. It measures 12,5 cm diameter x 19 cm high and is covered with a slippery product that stops the captured insects from escaping.

The CROSSTRAP® DRY COLLECTION CUP has the same capacity and measurements as the CROSSTRAP® WET COLLECTION CUP and is supplied with a stainless steel mesh that drains away the rainwater 100% and eases air circulation.


Collection cup for wet catches, located at the bottom of CROSSTRAP® traps.

Code: UIPFETA156

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Collection cup for dry use, or live catches, located at the bottom of CROSSTRAP® traps.

Code: UIPFETA157

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Storing the diffusers

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging in a cool and dry place and separated from food and drinks.

To preserve the diffusers for long periods of time, it is recommended to keep them in the refrigerator at 4 o C in which case they will last for 2 years. Or they can be kept in the freezer at -20 o C for 4 years.

Diffuser packaging


Corrugated cardboard box of 150 units (30 packs of 5 units).
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 16.40 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 335 kg.

Pack of 5 units

Pack of 5 units

Caja con 150 unidades

Box of 150 units.
(30 packs x 5 units)

Trap packaging


Corrugated cardboard box of 8 units.
Box size: 0.60 x 0.80 x 0.48 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 13.20 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 8
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 2.05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 116 kg.

Box of 8 units

Box 0f 8 units.


Corrugated cardboard box of 8 units.
Box size: 0.60 x 0.80 x 0.48 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 13.20 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 8
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 2.05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 116 kg.

Box of 8 units

Box of 8 units.

Recommended information:


Catalogue in PDF format with 94 pages. An essential reference book about the biological behaviours of the main forest insect populations. It also includes solutions from ECONEX to solve the problems caused by these insects through the use of traps and specific attractants.

Download the catalogue by clicking on the image.

Catalogue of products and services for forest pests


The leaflet can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the image.

Catalogue of products and services for forest pests


ECONEX puts at your disposal the first open knowledge center that brings together everything necessary to implement pest biocontrol in your crops. We have developed different types of resources to share with you the knowledge we have acquired during our more than 38 years of experience. Each of them is designed to respond, in the best possible way, to different questions related to pheromones, attractants, repellents and insect traps.

To access ECONEX LEARNING CENTER click on the image.

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