The Monochamus genus is made up of 150 species around the world although they are mostly in Equatorial Africa where many species attack coffee and cocoa. Monochamus species live on top of conifers in mild forests of the Holarctic region.
In regard to the Iberian Peninsula, the Monochamus genus is made up exclusively of two species: Monochamus sutor (Linneo 1758), and M. galloprovincialis (Olivier 1795). M. sutor is a species of the Palearctic region that reaches to Japan. It is not common in Iberia because it is only found in the Pyrenees. M. galloprovincialis species is much more common and is found in the Mediterranean basin, central Europe, Caucasus region, Siberia, Mongolia and China. On the Iberian Peninsula, they live on almost all of the Pinus species and even on Abies and Picea species. Some evidence seems to indicate that it shows little preference for Pinus pinea on the Iberian Peninsula.
The adults attack the bark and phloem of the growing branches. The larvae have phloem-xylophagus habits. None of the species of Monochamus genus reproduces on healthy trees, but they are attracted to stressed, dying or recently deceased trees. They are also attracted to freshly cut wood, favoured by previous attacks from Ipinos bark beetles (Orthotomicus and Ips). In fact, the kairomonal attractant used is made up of kairomones that have been produced by the host and kairomones produced by the bark beetles that attack the tree, mainly ipsenol.
When Monochamus colonises these trees which have already established a previous population of bark beetles, then it acts as an expert predator or intraguild predator.
This means that the Monochamus larva will feed on the phloem and the bark beetle larvae which are inside it. This extra protein content can provide the larvae with some advantage over the larvae that do not feed on it (Mas, 2016).
The female lays eggs in fissures with a characteristic cone shape or bite mark, which are excavated in the bark of dying trees.
The larvae are apodous, more or less cylindrical, and have a thickening on the cephalic segments that partly hide the head. They begin feeding on the phloem and cambium. Later on, they enter into the xylem and build a U-shaped gallery that ends in a pupal chamber, from which they emerge through a circular bore hole. Once the young adult has emerged, it goes through a period of sexual maturity in which it feeds on the soft bark of small branches, brachyblasts, phloem and pines shoots.
M. galloprovincialis is a non-aggressive insect that provides important benefits to the function of the forest ecosystem. It would not be of much interest if M. galloprovicialis had not been identified as the vector of the Pine Wilt Disease, caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal in 1999 (Sousa et al. 2001). Nowadays, it is the main vector of the disease on the Iberian Peninsula. Interaction between both organisms is a relationship of mutual interest, obligatory for the nematode and facultative for the beetle. This is because the nematode needs the beetle for its transport and dispersal. The beetle benefits from the death of the woodland caused by the nematode as this means an increase in the host material where they lay their eggs.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a species of phytosanitary quarantine introduced into European territory in 1999 when it was detected in the Setubal peninsula, in Portugal. Since then, it has spread out so much, that it has currently been declared a demarcated area in practically all continental Portugal.
In Spain, four outbreaks have been detected since 2008, all of them near the Portuguese border. Three of them in the province of Caceres and the other in Pontevedra. Three of the outbreaks are considered to be under control and the other completely eradicated.
The only vectors that have been demonstrated as effective in transmitting B. xylophilus are species of the Monochamus genus, specifically seven species: M. carolinensis, M. mutator, M. scutellatus and M. titillator in North America; M. alternatus and M. saltuarius in Northeast Asia; and M. galloprovincialis in Europe.
Therefore, one of the essential tools for the control of the disease is the control of its vector as it is the only method of transmitting the nematode from one tree to another.
DETECTION AND MONITORING
Work carried out in the framework of the European project REPHRAME have shown that the most effective trap for the capture of Monochamus galloprovincialis is the CROSSTRAP® (Álvarez et al, 2014). It can also capture this insect live. Capturing live insects is the best way to examine if they carry nematodes because when the insect dies, the nematodes leave the vector.
For the detection and monitoring of Monochamus galloprovincialis in areas free of the nematode, 1 CROSSTRAP® will be placed every 20 ha. These traps should be separated at least 1000 m from each other. In surfaces less than 20 ha, at least one trap should be placed per stand or forest.
In order to surround small circular areas or protect wood stockpiles, use 3 to 10 traps surrounding the area. The traps will be placed in areas with good visibility, such as forest borders, forest trails or fire-breaks. Windy places should be avoided, as the wind complicates the insects’ flight and could damage the traps.
A detection trap system should cover the environmental variability of the monitored forest. The traps should be placed and active between April and December.
The CROSSTRAP® and diffusers of kairomones ECONEX MONOCHAMUS ATTRACTANT (Code: VA195) should hang on the trap using the lateral holes of the vanes of the trap.
The diffusers are in a blister pack and packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications. They last 60 days in field conditions. Once removed from the packaging, the diffusers need no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.
The CROSSTRAP® is a state-of-the-art forest trap. This trap has been created through an R + D project (University of Murcia – ECONEX) aimed at developing traps and attractants for forest insects.
The trap consists of a 33 cm diameter polypropylene lid with a central carabiner attached to a steel spring. Two reinforced PVC vanes are held in place by four steel springs in the lid’s upper section. They are used as elements of dynamic suspension, serving as shock-absorbers against the force of the wind exerted on the trap, avoiding its breakage in the forest. They are also fixed in the lower part of a 30 cm diameter polypropylene funnel. The collection cup is fixed to the lower part of the funnel.
The vanes, funnel and collection cup are treated with a slippery product that increases the amount of captures considerably and prevents the insects from escaping.
The CROSSTRAP® can last up to 7 years due to its structure and highly resistant components. The unfolded trap measures 33 cm diameter x 146 cm high. Once folded, it is 33 cm diameter x 40 cm high, making its transport easier.
|56.79 € (excl. VAT)||56.79 € (excl. VAT)|
The trap can be used with two types of collection cup: CROSSTRAP® WET COLLECTION CUP for wet captures (with liquid), and CROSSTRAP ® DRY COLLECTION CUP for live captures (without liquid).
CROSSTRAP® WET COLLECTION CUP (Code: TA156) has an approximate capacity of 2 litres and a drain in the upper section to prevent it from filling with rainwater. It measures 12.5 cm diameter x 19 cm high and has a slippery product that stops the captures from escaping.
CROSSTRAP® DRY COLLECTION CUP (Code: TA157) has the same capacity and measurements as the CROSSTRAP® WET COLLECTION CUP but it has a base made of stainless steel mesh that drains away the rainwater 100% and eases air circulation.
|3.48 € (excl. VAT)||5.08 € (excl. VAT)|
STORING THE DIFFUSERS
The product must be stored in its original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -18 oC, in which case it will last between 90 and 150 days respectively.
Corrugated cardboard box of 150 units (30 packs of 5 units).
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height).Box weight: 16.400 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 335 kg.
ECONEX CATALOGUE OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR FOREST PESTS
Catalogue in PDF format with 94 pages. It is an essential reference book about the biological behaviours of the main forest insect populations. It also includes ECONEX solutions to solve the problems caused by these insects through the use of traps and specific attractants.
You can download the catalogue by clicking on the image.
ECONEX WEB RESOURCES
Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.
To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.